Pro(Zero)

Plant Protein

Protein sourced from non-animal products with no artificial flavors, colors, or sweeteners.

Citation: http://hpnsupplements.com/­product/­prozero-protein/

Vitamin A (from Palmitate)

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that comes in two forms; preformed vitamin A and pro-vitamin A. Preformed vitamin A is found in meat, poultry, and dairy, and also in Palmitate. Pro-vitamin A is found in plant sources, and the most common form is beta-carotene.

Vitamin A is needed to maintain function of skin, mucous membranes, skeletal and soft tissue, vision, and immune function. Deficiencies in vitamin A can lead to vision problems, higher risk of infections, slow wound healing, and compromised growth. Excess vitamin A can cause illness, fatigue, nausea, and abnormal fetal development.

Summary: Vitamin A is needed by the body to ensure healthy function and protection from infections.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/ency/­article/002400.htm

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin found in fruits in vegetables, especially melons, citrus fruits, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, peppers, and spinach. Some processed foods are fortified with vitamin C.

Vitamin C is an antioxidant and is needed for the growth and repair of collagen, connective tissues, bones, and teeth. It also aids with iron absorption and promotes catecholamine and steroid hormone synthesis, all of which are beneficial for muscle development.

Because it is water soluble, toxicity of this vitamin is very low; excess intake will be released by the body in urine. However, deficiencies of this vitamin can cause weakness, susceptibility to infections, scurvy, and slow healing.

Summary: Vitamin C is needed in the diet to ensure proper hormone synthesis, growth and repair of tissues, and absorption of iron. Because it is water soluble, it is important to continually get vitamin C through foods and supplements.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/ency/­article/002404.htm

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Vitamin D3 (as Cholecalciferol)

Cholecalciferol, or D3, is one of the five forms of vitamin D. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin found in fatty fish, liver, oils, and fortified dairy, juice, and cereal products. However, vitamin D is formed by the body at levels of about 80-90% of what is needed simply from exposure to sunlight.

Vitamin D is needed by the body to increase calcium absorption, and stimulates bone formation. A proper supply of vitamin D is needed by all individuals to help prevent conditions such as osteoporosis but it is especially important for those who partake in high-impact activities such as weightlifting. The stress placed on the skeleton during activity needs to be repaired for proper development.

Excess vitamin D can lead to problems such as joint pain and calcification of soft tissues.

Summary: It is beneficial to supplement with Vitamin D to ensure the skeleton is strong and undergoing repair to support the demands placed upon it during high intensity exercise.

Citations:http://www.body­building.com/­store/vitd.html?­searchterm=­vitamin%20d
http://www.webmd.com/­vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono­-929-vitamin%20d.aspx?­activeingredientid=929&­activeingredientname=­vitamin%20d

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Vitamin E (from DL-Alpha Tocopheryl Acetate)

Another fat-soluble vitamin, Vitamin E is found in eight forms, but only alpha-tocopheryl has been seen to meet the needs of the human body. DL-Alpha Tocopheryl acetate is a synthetic form of this nutrient. Vitamin E is also found in eggs, leafy greens, whole-grains, nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils.

It has antioxidant properties, and protects cell membranes throughout the body. There is also research that presents evidence that vitamin E can help maintain heart health and prevent coronary heart disease.

Deficiency of vitamin E, while rare, can cause damage to blood cells and anemia, while excess vitamin E can cause symptoms of headache, fatigue, and diarrhea.

Summary: Vitamin E is a beneficial antioxidant that fights against damage and free radicals created by exercise, and has the potential to help protect heart health.

Citations: http://www.livestrong.com/­article/­545591-what-is-­the-difference-between-d-alpha-­dl-alpha-tocopheryl-acetate/
https://ods.od.nih.gov/­factsheets/­VitaminE-Health­Professional/

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance.Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Vitamin K-1 (as Phytonadione)

Vitamin K is the last fat-soluble vitamin, and is found naturally in liver, eggs, leafy green vegetables, cheese, and butter. It is also formed in the body by bacteria in the large intestine. Phytonadione is a form of vitamin K that works by helping the liver produce blood clotting factors. Additionally, vitamin K1 has cardiovascular benefits that come from protection from calcification of arteries.

Vitamin K deficiencies are rare because the body produces it, but problems with absorption from the intestinal tract can lead to deficiency. People with vitamin K deficiency are subject to bleeding that does not stop, hemorrhage, and large bruises. Excess vitamin K can lead to the formation of blood clots, also known as thrombosis.

Summary: Vitamin K is essential for blood and heart health, and is included in many supplements and multi-vitamins.

Citations:https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/ency/­article/002407.htm
http://articles.mercola.com/­sites/articles/­archive/2015/01/11/­vitamin-k1-k2.aspx

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Thiamin (from Thiamine Mononitrate) (Vitamin B-1)

There are eight B vitamins; all are water-soluble and each one is needed by the body for different reasons. Thiamin, or vitamin B1, is found in whole-grains, fortified cereals, potatoes, nuts, legumes, and most meats. Thiamin forms a coenzyme to become thiamine pyrophosphate that aids in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids.

Therefore, thiamin stimulates carbohydrate metabolism. It also supports central nervous system function and is used in the treatment of some brain disorders. Early research also shows that thiamin may have a protective effect on the kidneys as well, reducing the levels of albumin (an indication of kidney disease) in the urine. For athletes taking many supplements, proper kidney function is highly important for proper filtration and excretion. Thiamin is also used to help with mood and mental outlook, increasing energy, and fighting stress.

Deficiencies in thiamin can lead to apathy, depression, pain in calf muscles, and loss of appetite.

Summary:Thiamin is necessary for stimulation of carbohydrate metabolism, and can have the beneficial effects of increased energy and mood.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/­druginfo/natural/965.html

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2)

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is found in dairy products including milk and cheese, meat, eggs, leafy green vegetables, and beans. Riboflavin is an antioxidant, and is used by the body to alter vitamin B6 and folate into forms that are usable by the body. It also makes coenzymes needed for proper metabolism with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN).

Riboflavin promotes carbohydrate and fat oxidation. It also supports healthy skin, hair, eyes, and liver function. Proper levels of riboflavin are also important for growth and red blood cell formation.

Lack of riboflavin can have effects such as fatigue, digestive problems, eye damage, skin problems, and reduced growth.

Summary:Riboflavin supports fat and carbohydrate metabolism, ensuring the body has proper energy available for performance. It also has many protective benefits throughout the body.

Citations: https://umm.edu/­health/medical/­altmed/supplement/­vitamin-b2-riboflavin

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Niacin (as Niacinamide)

Niacin is also known as vitamin B3. It is an essential vitamin, and is found in natural sources such as meat, fish, whole grain products, lentils, nuts, and can also be formed in the body from the essential amino acid, tryptophan. Niacin also works with NAD and NADP to promote anaerobic glycolysis.

Niacin promotes energy production at the cellular level, including improving efficiency of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. This vitamin also supports healthy skin.

Deficiency of this vitamin can lead to weakness, skin and gut problems, but overuse can lead to inhibition of lipolysis, liver damage, headache, nausea, and skin irritation.

Summary: Niacin, and the coenzymes it produces, help the body use fats and carbohydrates efficiently to ensure proper energy levels. Niacin can also help maintain healthy skin.

Citations: http://www.bodybuilding.com/store/­niacin.html?searchterm=niacin
https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/­druginfo/­natural/924.html

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxine HCl)

Vitamin B6 can be received through the diet by eating meat, poultry, fish, potatoes, legumes, dairy products, bananas, nuts, whole-grain products, and green leafy vegetables. This vitamin helps with protein metabolism, glycogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis.

Vitamin B6 is especially important for athletes and individuals who consume a high level of protein. This vitamin helps break down proteins into amino acids that the body can use for fuel and muscle growth. Additionally, it supports healthy nervous system function. It also is necessary for the formation of hemoglobin and red blood cells. Increasing the amount of hemoglobin and red blood cells in the blood allows for more oxygen to be transported to the cells, especially the muscles during exercise.

Lack of vitamin B6 can cause convulsions, irritability, anemia, and skin conditions. Excess vitamin B6 can cause problems with nerve sensation and gait problems.

Summary: Vitamin B6 ensures proper protein metabolism for use in the body, as well as healthy blood and nervous system function so the body can perform at high levels.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/ency/­article/­002402.html
http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/vitamin-b6.html?­searchterm=­vitamin%20b6

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Folic Acid

Folic acid is another B vitamin that helps the body create new healthy cells. It is found in foods such as leafy green vegetables, fortified cereals and grain products, potatoes, legumes, nuts, and fruits. Folic acid is necessary for DNA and RNA formation, so is needed by the body at the most basic level. For this reason, folic acid is incredibly important as supplement during pregnancy to ensure healthy growth and development of the child.

In all humans, folic acid also promotes the formation of blood components, including red and white blood cells and hemoglobin. Folic acid has also been shown to help aid absorption in the gut, to ensure proper nutrient intake from foods. Folic acid can also help with mood and brain function.

There are no toxic effects of excess folic acid, but deficiencies in this vitamin can cause anemia, fatigue, diarrhea, gut problems, and other infections.

Summary: A vitamin necessary for general health and well-being, folic acid helps with proper development and health at the cellular level.

Citations: http://www.webmd.com/­vitamins-supplements/­ingredientmono-1017-folic%20acid.aspx?­activeingredientid=1017&­activeingredientname­=folic%20acid
http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/­folic.html?­searchterm=­folic%20ac

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Vitamin B12 (as Cyanocobalamin)

Vitamin B12 also helps form DNA and RNA in cells; ensuring proper intake of this vitamin can help prevent mutations and problems at the cellular level. Vitamin B12 is in foods such as red meat, poultry, shellfish, eggs, milk, cheese, and fortified foods (cereals, breads). Although vitamin B12 is water-soluble, it can be stored in the liver.

This vitamin is essential for metabolism and like other B vitamins, aids in blood cell creation, central nervous system function, and health of many tissues such as the gut and skin. The metabolic support provided by vitamin B12 can help with fat loss and the central nervous system effects allow for high levels of functioning that support exercise.

Deficiencies in vitamin B12 can lead to problems such as anemia, fatigue, nerve damage, paralysis, and a higher risk for infections.

Summary: Supplementation with vitamin B12 is another way to support healthy metabolic and nervous function.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/ency/­article/002403.htm

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Biotin

Biotin is another vitamin the aids in the conversion of carbohydrates into glucose. Biotin aids in the stimulation of metabolism of all three fuel sources; fats, carbohydrates, and protein. Biotin is received naturally through most vegetables, meat, milk, egg yolk, legumes, and whole grain products.

This vitamin has been reported to help increase the strength of hair, nails, skin, and bone. Biotin also forms a coenzyme that allows for CO2 transfer in the body; this is vital to remove the metabolic waste that is CO2 out of the body and into the lungs for elimination from the body. Additionally, by promoting carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, biotin can aid in increasing metabolic rate.

Although biotin deficiency is rare, symptoms include nausea, fatigue, and skin conditions. There are no symptoms associated with excess biotin because extra is eliminated from the body through urine.

Summary: Biotin is a vitamin that helps improve the structural integrity of the body through strengthening the skin, hair, nails, and bones. It also increases metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.

Citations: https://umm.edu/­health/medical/­altmed/supplement/­vitamin-h-biotin
http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/biotin.html?­searchterm=biotin

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Pantothenic Acid (as D-Calcium Pantothenate)

Found in foods such as liver, meat, dairy products, eggs, whole-grain cereals and other products, legumes, and most vegetables, pantothenic acid is another B vitamin that has many beneficial functions. It forms coenzyme A for metabolism, which is used by the body to oxidize fatty acids and plays a role in the citric acid cycle.

Pantothenic acid further promotes carbohydrate and fat oxidation. It is also critical to the production of sex and stress hormones produced by the adrenal glands. These hormones, such as adrenaline and testosterone, play a large role in exercise and muscle strength and development. Lastly, pantothenic acid is necessary for the synthesis of cholesterol in the body. Some studies have shown that pantothenic acid has the potential to reduce bad cholesterol (LDL) and increase good cholesterol (HDL).

If the body does not receive enough pantothenic acid, fatigue, nausea, depression, and loss of appetite can be effects, but there are no effects of excess intake of this vitamin.

Summary:Pantothenic acid is needed to create stress and sex hormones, as well as to create a coenzyme required for metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. It can also help regulate cholesterol levels.

Citations: https://umm.edu/­health/medical/­altmed/supplement/­vitamin-b5-panto­thenic­-acid
http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/­panto.html

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Calcium (from Tricalcium Phosphate)

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body, and it plays many roles. It is found in dairy products, egg yolk, beans, peas, dark green vegetables, and cauliflower. Approximately 99% of the body’s calcium is stored in bones and teeth, where it allows bones to undergo constant change and remodeling.

The remaining 1% of calcium in the body is used for many functions, including vascular contraction and dilation, membrane potentials and nerve impulse transmission, muscular contraction, and regulation of enzymes. Some preliminary studies have also linked proper levels of calcium to an increase in fat loss.

Calcium deficiency can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, impaired muscular contractions, and muscular weakness. Excess calcium can impair absorption of other trace minerals such as zinc or iron, cause cardiac arrhythmias, kidney stones, and other conditions.

Summary:Calcium supplementation ensures proper ability for the body to build strong bones and train with sustained power provided by available calcium for muscular contraction.
Animal data has also suggested that calcium can play a role in fat loss.

Citations: http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/­calcium.html?­searchterm=calcium
https://ods.od.nih.gov/­factsheets/­Calcium-HealthProfessional/

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Iron

Iron is a mineral that is necessary for healthy function of red blood cells. Iron rich foods include red meats, seafood, bread, flour, nuts, leafy green vegetables, broccoli, figs, raisins, and cocoa. Iron comes in two main forms, heme and nonheme. Plants and fortified foods carry the nonheme version, while animal products contain both types.

Iron is a component of hemoglobin, the protein that transfers oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. Without proper iron levels, hemoglobin is unable to deliver oxygen to all organs in the body, including the brain and muscles. This will cause a drop in energy levels. Iron provides support for immune function, some hormone synthesis, and connective tissue development. Additionally, iron is a component in cytochromes; these proteins are components of the electron transport chain in the mitochondria. Therefore, iron is essential to maintaining metabolism as well.

Lack of iron will cause anemia, fatigue, and place an individual at a higher risk for infections. Too much iron can cause serious liver damage, heart problems, and also increase risk of infections.

Summary: Iron is an essential element in the diet that allows for proper delivery of oxygen to the body. It also supports a healthy immune system and metabolism.

Citations: https://ods.od.nih.gov/­factsheets/­Iron-HealthProfessional/#en2
http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/iron.html?­searchterm=iron

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010).Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Phosphorous (from Tricalcium Phosphate & Dimagnesium Phosphate)

Phosphorous is needed, along with calcium, to develop strong bones and teeth. It is found in foods such as meat, eggs, fish, milk, cheese, beans, peas, and sometimes soft drinks. Tricalcium phosphate is a supplement in which calcium is bonded to phosphate. Dimagnesium Phosphate is a magnesium acid salt of phosphoric acid.

Phosphorous is a component of many cellular components, such as DNA, RNA, cell membranes, PCr, and ATP. Due to its chemical place in ATP, this mineral plays a significant part in the body’s use of energy sources, such as carbohydrates and fats. Additionally, phosphorous helps maintain proper kidney function, is a buffer in muscular contractions, maintains steady heartbeat, and aids in nerve signaling.

Deficiencies in phosphorous can lead to osteoporosis, due to its interaction with calcium in the development of healthy bones. Muscle cramps and weakness are also symptoms. Excess phosphorous can cause impaired absorption of other minerals such as iron, zinc, and copper.

Summary: Phosphorous is the second most common mineral in the body, and is needed to support bone health, proper muscular function, nervous function, and the ability of the body to produce ATP.

Citations:https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/ency/­article/002424.htm
http://www.healthline.com/­health/­food-nutrition/­what-is-tricalcium-phosphate­#Overview1
https://en.wikipedia.org/­wiki/­Dimagnesium_phosphate

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Iodine (From Potassium Iodide)

Iodine is a mineral that is naturally found in the body, and is needed for proper function. The most common source of iodine in the diet is through the use of iodized salt. Potassium iodide is also a salt, but it is not the same as table salt. It is often used to protect the thyroid from radioactive iodine in certain medicines.

Iodine is used by the body to create thyroid hormones T3 and T4. These hormones control metabolism throughout the body. Presence of T3 and T4 in the blood increases carbohydrate metabolism, breakdown of fats and both protein synthesis and breakdown. By ensuring the body has proper levels of iodine, low levels of T3 and T4 can be prevented; low levels of these hormones promote fat storage and decrease basal metabolic rate.

As just stated, low levels of iodine can drop metabolic rate and also cause goiter (swelling of the thyroid gland) or hypothyroidism. Too high levels of iodide can actually decrease thyroid activity as well.

Summary: Iodine is necessary in the diet to ensure proper synthesis of thyroid hormones; these hormones have a direct role on increasing metabolic rate in most tissues throughout the body.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/ency/­article/002421.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.org/­drugs-supplements/­potassium-iodide-oral-route/­description/drg-20065546
http://www.endocrinesurgeon.co.uk/­index.php/­what-does-the-thyroid-gland-do

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Magnesium (from Trimagnesium Citrate & Dimagnesium Phosphate)

Magnesium plays a role in over 300 functions in the body. Sources of magnesium in the diet include seafood, nuts, green leafy vegetables, fruits, whole-grain products, milk, and yogurt. Trimagnesium citrate is a salt of magnesium and citric acid. By weight, it contains more magnesium than magnesium alone. Dimagnesium Phosphate is a magnesium acid salt of phosphoric acid.

Magnesium promotes protein synthesis in the body. It also helps form ATPases, and 2,3-DPG formation. ATPases are enzymes that transform ATP into ADP and the free phosphate, and create energy needed for activity, such as exercise. The presence of 2,3-DPG decreases hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen, so allows it to deposit it at the tissues. This is also necessary for proper muscular function. Additionally, magnesium keeps the heartbeat steady. Similar to many other minerals, magnesium also supports healthy immune function.

Magnesium deficiency will case muscle weakness, fatigue, apathy, muscle tremor, and cramps. Excess can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Summary: Magnesium is the fourth most common mineral in the body, and is crucial for proper metabolic function and energy production. It also stimulates protein synthesis, which can lead to muscle development.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/ency/­article/002423.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/­Magnesium_citrate_(3:2)

MacDonald, R. (1977). Red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and oxygen affinity. Anaesthesia, 6, 544-553.

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Zinc (from Zinc Sulfate)

Zinc is found in shellfish, beef, poultry, liver, dairy, whole grains, asparagus, spinach, and other vegetables. Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound that is traditionally used to treat low levels of zinc. This element is necessary for the formation of some enzymes, and is necessary for immune function.

Zinc supports antioxidant activity throughout the body, so it aids in helping the body recover and repair tissues from damage due to free radicals. It supports cell division, growth, and wound healing. This allows for proper recovery after training. Lastly, zinc helps in the breakdown of carbohydrates, so is needed for energy metabolism.

Low levels of zinc can result in reduced growth, slow healing from injury, more infections, and anorexia. Too much zinc in the diet can lead to impaired absorption of iron and copper, anemia, nausea, and impaired immunity.

Summary: Zinc is a micronutrient that is vital to proper metabolism, protein synthesis, and recovery, as well as immune function.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/­ency/article/002416.htm
http://www.webmd.com/­drugs/2/drug-4086/­zinc+sulfate+oral/details

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance.Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Selenium (from Sodium Selenite)

Selenium is found naturally in many foods, and is added to others. This mineral is a component of many proteins that play important roles in the body. This mineral is found in meat, fish, dairy, seafood, whole grains, and nuts from selenium rich soil. Sodium selenite is a natural inorganic selenium supplement that provides the minerals needed. Selenium is stored mostly in the muscle tissue.

Selenium works with glutathione peroxidase, an enzyme with antioxidant properties to protect the cells and DNA from free radical damage. Other proteins that rely in selenium are critical for reproduction, thyroid hormone metabolism, and DNA synthesis. The protective roles of selenium suggest that it could play a role in preventing cancer and reducing risk of cardiovascular disease.

Lack of selenium in the diet can cause cardiomyopathies, cancer, heart disease, impaired immune function, and fragile red blood cells. Symptoms of excess selenium can include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and hair loss.

Summary: Selenium is a trace mineral that supports the function of proper DNA synthesis, reproduction, metabolism, and immune function and the cellular level.

Citations: https://ods.od.nih.gov/­factsheets/­Selenium-HealthProfessional/
http://www.twinlab.com/­product/sodium-selenite

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Copper (from Cupric Oxide)

The human body needs copper in small amounts. Copper is found naturally in liver, meat, shellfish, fish, eggs, bran products, nuts, legumes, broccoli, bananas, avocados, and chocolate. Cupric Oxide is one of the two stable oxides of copper. Copper helps the body absorb iron. This helps in the production of red blood cells and hemoglobin.

Other major roles of copper in the body includes promoting oxidative metabolism, forming collagen and other connective tissues, and working along with enzymes such as superoxide dismutase as an antioxidant. This means that it helps protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species.

It is rare to be truly deficient or intake copper in excess. However, if other mineral intake is interfering with the bioavailability or absorption of copper within the body, symptoms of anemia, impaired immune function, and bone demineralization can occur. Symptoms of excess copper intake include nausea and vomiting.

Summary: Copper is an element needed by the body to ensure healthy red blood cell production, connective tissue development, and protection from oxidative damage. These effects can help ensure the body can perform at a high level.

Citations: https://umm.edu/­health/medical/­altmed/supplement/copper
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/­Copper%28II%29_oxide

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Manganese (from Manganese Sulfate)

Manganese is another mineral found in small amounts in the body, but it does play a role in ensuring proper growth and metabolism. It is stored in the bones, liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Manganese is found in natural food sources such as whole grains, peas, beans, leafy vegetables, and bananas.

This element promotes bone synthesis to ensure the skeleton is strong. It also aids in the production of blood clotting components and sex hormones. This includes testosterone, which is important in muscle development. Additionally, manganese is a cofactor that is required for metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. Essentially, its is required for enzymes to function and break down fats and carbohydrates for use as energy. Manganese also works with copper and superoxide dismutase to fight free radicals.

Manganese in insufficient levels can cause poor growth, infertility, weakness, and seizures. However, overconsumption of manganese can lead to neural problems, confusion, and weakness.

Summary: Manganese is a necessary micronutrient that allows the body to build strong bones and muscles. Enzymes that regulate fat and carbohydrate metabolism also need it to create energy needed by the body.

Citations: https://umm.edu/health/­medical/altmed/­supplement/manganese

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance.Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Chromium (from Chromium Chloride)

The body does not produce chromium, so it is necessary to obtain it through the diet. It is found in natural sources such as liver, kidney, red meat, cheese, whole grain products, beer, asparagus, mushrooms, black pepper, and nuts.

Chromium’s main effect in the body is to supplement insulin action. Insulin is one of two hormones that regulate blood sugar levels, and interacts with other hormones such as glucagon, leptin, and ghrelin to effect hunger. Chromium increases the metabolic action of insulin, so increases the body’s ability to store glucose as glycogen in the muscles and liver. In a study done on chicks to determine the effects of chromium on growth, glucose metabolism, and lipid synthesis, it was discovered that chromium increased the rate of glucose utilization.

Chromium insufficiency can lead to symptoms that imitate insulin resistance or diabetes; these include glucose resistance and impaired lipid metabolism. Because chromium is not easily absorbed, toxicity is very rare.

Summary: Chromium is needed in the diet to ensure proper glucose uptake by the tissues and fat metabolism. Enough intake of chromium will ensure the muscles have proper glycogen supply.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/ency/­article/002418.htm

(2004). A scientific review: the role of chromium in insulin resistance. Diabetes Education Supplement,2-14.

Cupo, M.A & Donaldson, W.E. (1987). Chromium and vanadium effects on glucose metabolism and lipid synthesis in the chick. Poultry Science, 1, 120-126.

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010).Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Molybdenum (from Sodium Molybdate)

Molybdenum is found in plant foods, and animals that eat plants with mineral rich soil.

Good sources include liver, kidney, whole grain products, beans, nuts, and peas. Sodium Molybdate is a good chemical source of molybdenum.

This mineral is necessary for carbohydrate and fat metabolism. It makes a cofactor with enzymes such as sulphite oxidase. This is found in the mitochondria, and provides electrons to the electron transport cycle, allowing metabolism of carbohydrate and the generation of ATP. Without molybdenum, this process is inhibited. There have been no effects of deficiency or excess of molybdenum in humans.

Summary: Molybdenum is only needed in small amounts, but it is necessary for stimulation of fat and carbohydrate breakdown to provide the body with energy.

Sources: https://www.nrv.gov.au/­nutrients/molybdenum

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010).Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Chloride

Chloride, or chlorine, is mostly ingested through table salt or sea salt in the chemical form of NaCl. It is also found in most foods, and is needed in many parts of the body.

Chloride helps the body maintain proper balance of fluids. High levels of chloride can cause the body to retain fluids in order to maintain proper levels in the blood, and low levels of chloride can have a diuretic effect. It also promotes nerve impulse conduction. Chloride ions aid an inhibitory neurotransmitter called GABA. This moderation of depolarization of neurons helps control communication between synapses. Lastly, chloride is an important component of hydrochloric acid, the digestive enzyme found in the stomach. Proper hydrochloric acid formation is needed to ensure food is digested properly.

Chloride deficiencies can be caused by loss of body fluids through sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea, and can cause convulsions. On the contrary, as mentioned above, excess levels of chloride in the body can cause hypertension and fluid retention.

Summary:Chloride is needed to maintain proper fluid balance in the body, for the creation of stomach acid, and moderation of nerve impulse transmission throughout the body.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/ency/­article/002417.htm
http://users.rcn.com/­jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/­E/ExcitableCells.html

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010).Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Sodium

Sodium is the second component in the common ingredient, table salt. Meats, fish, breads, canned foods, sauces, pickled foods, and most processed foods provide sodium in the diet.

Sodium is an element used by the body to promote blood volume homeostasis. It is an electrolyte, and high levels of sodium will cause the body to retain fluids; low levels will cause the body to eliminate fluids. Sodium is also necessary for the generation of nerve impulses and muscular contraction. Sodium rushes into the cell, causing a cellular reaction that results in the muscle cell shortening. Proper levels of sodium ensure that both the heart and all skeletal muscles are functioning properly.

Sodium deficiency, which is very rare in the American diet, can cause hypernatremia, dizziness due to low blood volume, muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, seizures, and coma. Excess sodium, which is not uncommon, can cause hypertension and nausea, as well as fluid retention.

Summary: Sodium is an element needed by the body for proper heart and muscle function. This micronutrient also helps maintain fluid balance and blood concentration.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/­ency/article/002415.htm

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010).Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

Potassium

Potassium is another electrolyte that plays multiple important roles in the body. It is found in all meats, fish, milk, yogurt, fruits such as bananas, citrus, cantaloupe, and vegetables such as broccoli, peas, potatoes, and squash.

Potassium promotes membrane potential for nerve impulses, and is critical for healthy heart function. It also plays a role in muscle contraction. After sodium depolarizes the cell and causes contraction, the efflux of potassium allows for repolarization and leveling of membrane potential. Therefore, potassium, like sodium, is necessary to ensure that muscles can contract with full force, and also aids in digestion with its affects on smooth muscle. Potassium also helps regulate the chemical balance of the blood.

Caution should be taken regarding the levels of potassium ingested. Low levels of potassium can lead to muscle cramps, weakness. apathy, loss of appetite, and irregular heartbeat. Too much potassium in the body can cause cardiac arrhythmias and heart attack.

Summary: Potassium is a mineral that helps maintain properly functioning heart, smooth, and skeletal muscle. It also helps regulate blood chemistry, and regulates fluid and acid balance.

Citations: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/ency/­article/002413.htm

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010).Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

AjiPure® Fermented Vegetarian BCAA (L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, L-Valine)

Branched-chain amino acids, or BCAA’s, are not produced by the body, so are considered to be essential amino acids. This means that they need to be consumed through the diet. AjiPure® BCAA’s are also instantized, which means that they are processed to be quick dissolving and readily available for use by the body once ingested.

BCAA’s can be used as fuel during exercise, and are hypothesized to have many beneficial functions. Because BCAA’s are also a fuel source, they can bolster stamina and allow for extended performance. Early research has found that BCAA’s can reduce the catabolic effect during and after exercise, and accelerate repair of muscle tissue post-exercise. This effect will reduce soreness and fatigue. BCAA’s are also some of the building blocks that stimulate the creation of muscle tissue, so can lead to increased muscle growth and development.

Summary: Branched-chain amino acids, also known as BCAA’s, stimulate the body’s signaling pathways for protein synthesis, which leads to muscle growth. Along with the ability to be used as a fuel source, this key feature of these amino acids can help build muscle, aid in recovery, and improve training and performance.

Citations: http://www.ajipure.com/­products/­fusibcaa.aspx

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010).Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

V(1)

All Vitamins/Minerals

See above for information (Pro(Zero))

Green Coffee Extract

Green coffee extract comes from coffee beans that have not been roasted. The roasting process reduces the levels of chlorogenic acid in the beans. Recent studies show that the chlorogenic acids in green coffee are highly bioavailable and easily metabolized by humans after oral consumption.

The chlorogenic acid that is the active ingredient in green coffee extract has multiple health benefits, including heart health and the potential to aid in weight loss. Studies show that chlorogenic acid is safe for consumption. Human subjects with mild hypertension were treated with chlorogenic acid, and after testing, had decreased blood pressure compared to the placebo group. This indicates that chlorogenic acid has the potential to help maintain heart and circulatory system health. Additionally, a study was performed on overweight people, in which subjects were given coffee supplemented with chlorogenic acid, and they lost body mass at a higher rate than the placebo group, who only received coffee. This weight loss resulted from the effects that chlorogenic acid has on glucose absorption and utilization, and indicates that if used for an extended period of time, could reduce in lower body mass.

Summary:Green coffee extract has chlorogenic acid as its main active ingredient; this natural chemical has been scientifically proven to have significant effects on the body’s utilization of glucose, which has the potential to help increase metabolism and reduce bodyweight. Chlorogenic acid may also have heart health benefits in its ability to reduce blood pressure as well.

Citations: http://www.webmd.com/­vitamins-supplements/­ingredientmono-1264-­green%20coffee.aspx?­activeingredientid=1264&­activeingredientname=­green%20coffee

Farah, A., Monteiro, M., Donagelo, C.M., & Lafay, S. (2008). Chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract are highly bioavailable in humans. The Journal of Nutrition, 138, 2309-2315.

Thom, E. (2007). The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people. The Journal of International Medical Research, 35, 900-908.

Watanabe, T., Arai, Y., Mitsui, Y., Kusara, T., Okawa, W., Kajihara, Y., & Saito, I. (2006). The blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 28, 439-449.

Broccoli Sprout Concentrate

Broccoli sprouts are three- to four- day old broccoli plants. At this age, broccoli plants have very high levels of antioxidants that help protect them as they grow. IN fact, they have much higher levels of antioxidants by weight than mature broccoli, making them an ideal source of obtaining these necessary protective chemicals.

The antioxidants in broccoli sprout concentrate have been studied, and high glucoraphanin (an antioxidant) broccoli was shown to contribute to a reduced risk of cancer. Broccoli has been associated with a reduction of both incidence and progression of cancers such as stomach, lung, bladder, breast, and prostate, among others. Another effect of broccoli sprouts is that they may help target the cellular problems in autism, and can help reduce behavioral manifestations of the disorder.

Summary: Broccoli sprouts have a much higher concentration of antioxidants than mature broccoli. These chemicals have the potential to reduce cancer risk, and some other conditions such as autism.

Citations: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/­Broccoli_sprouts­#cite_note-9
http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/­news/media/­releases/chemical_­derived_from_broccoli_­sprouts_shows_promise_­in_treating_autism

Armah, C.N., Traka, M.H., Dainty, J.R., Defernez, M., Janssens, A., Leung, W…. Mithen, R.F. (2013). A diet rich in high-glucoraphanin broccoli interacts with genotype to reduce discordance in plasma metabolite profiles by modulation mitochondrial function. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98, 712-722

Green Tea Extract

Green tea is a good source of caffeine and is a good alternative to coffee. It also contains antioxidants called catechins that help support immune function and heart health. A very simple way to get a high dose of green tea is through green tea extract supplementation, instead of drinking it.

Catechins also have been studied to have a significant effect on increasing energy expenditure beyond what would occur simply due to the caffeine content of the tea. These catechins have a thermogenic effect, promote fat oxidation, and stimulate the hormone noradrenaline. Therefore, in addition to providing many health benefits, green tea extract has the ability to aid in fat loss.

Summary: The antioxidants in green tea extract provide general health benefits, and also stimulate energy expenditure and fat oxidation, to aid in fat loss when consumed regularly.

Citations: http://www.body­building.com/­fun/­everything-you-­need-to-know-about-­green-tea-extract.html

Dulloo, A.G., Duret, C., Roher, D., Girardier, L., Mensi, N., Fathi, M…. Vandermander, J. (1999). Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and facceine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70, 1040-1045

Onion Extract

Onions are incredibly full of nutrients that are beneficial for the human body. Onions have high levels vitamin C, sulphuric compounds, flavonoids, and phytochemicals. Flavonoids have the potential to help reduce the risks of many diseases, including stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and CVD. Phytochemicals are found in fruits and vegetables, and can act as antioxidants, trigger enzyme or hormone production, act as antibiotics, and protect DNA from harmful particles.

The extract of onion is a concentrated form of onion, and has been recently shown to help lower blood glucose levels and total cholesterol levels in diabetic rats. The sulfuric components lead to increased insulin production. It also appeared to increase the metabolic rate of normal-weight rats, which, if diet is controlled, could translate into weight loss.

Summary: Onion extract is a simple way to get the many health benefits of onion, including reduced risk of many diseases, antioxidants, reduction of blood glucose, and stimulation of metabolic rate.

Citations: http://www.livescience.com/­45293-onion-nutrition.html
http://www.eurekalert.org/­pub_releases/2015-03/­tes-oem030515.php
http://www.phytochemicals.info

Apple Extract

Apples have long been accepted as a source of many beneficial nutrients. Apples are one of the most highly consumed fruits around the world. They contain many vitamins, antioxidants in the form of phytonutrients and flavonoids, and also are rich in dietary fiber.

Apple extract generally is taken from the peels, in which most of the antioxidants are located. The antioxidant known as quercitin has been shown to reduce cellular death caused by oxidation and inflammation of neurons, which improves neurological health and could aid in preventing neurodegenerative diseases. A study performed in 2010 also demonstrated that there is a link between the intake of apple peel extract and reduction in proliferation of cancer cells.

Summary: Apple extract provides many health benefits, including providing the body with powerful antioxidants that have the potential to reduce neural damage and cancer development or growth.

Citations: http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/267290.php

Reagan-Shaw, S., Eggert, D., Mukhtar, H., & Ahmad, N. (2010). Antiproliferative effects of apple peel extract against cancer cells. Nutrition and Cancer, 62, 517-524.

Acerola Extract

Acerola is a plant found in the West Indies and South America, Central America, and southern states of the US such as Texas and Florida. Fruit from this tree is very juicy and pleasant tasting. This plant has been used in traditional medicine to treat dysentery, liver conditions, and diarrhea. It has a very high level of vitamin C, more than oranges, as well as other vitamins and minerals.

As stated above, vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that strengthens the connective tissue in the body and supports other systems. Acerola extract has also been researched and it has been determined that it can have beneficial effects on other biological chemicals, such as phytoestrogens. For example, it aided in the reduction of LDL (bad cholesterol) levels through antioxidant activity when taken in addition to soy and alfalfa extracts.

Summary: Acerola extract contains many antioxidants, and high levels of vitamin C. When taken in combination with other natural extracts high in antioxidants, it can help lower cholesterol levels.

Citations: http://www.drugs.com/­npp/acerola.html#ref9

Hwang, J., Hodis, H., & Sevanian, A. (2001). Soy and alfalfa phytoestrogen extracts become potent low-density lipoprotein antioxidants in the presence of acerola cherry extract. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 49, 308-314

Camu Camu Concentrate

Another source of vitamin C, camu camu is a fruit native to the Amazon region. This fruit has one of the highest supplies of vitamin C by weight, from 2.4 to 3.0g/100g of pulp. By comparison oranges only provide approximately 70mg/100g of fruit. In addition, this fruit also contains beta-carotene, many minerals, and phytochemicals that have antioxidant properties.

The effects of the many nutrients in this fruit include antiviral and antibacterial functions, proper nervous system function, and inflammation reduction. It may also lower risk of cardiovascular disease and cancers. These effects result from the vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that it contains.

Summary:Camu camu is a tropical fruit that has one of the highest known concentrations of vitamin C. This fruit also is full of other nutrients that can have antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant effects.

Citations: http://www.purehealingfoods.com/­camuInfo.php

Aketer, M.S, Oh, S., Eun, J., Ahmend, M. (2011). Nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of camu-camu (myrciaria dubia) fruit: a review. Food Research International, 44, 1728-1732.

Justi, K.C., Visentainer, J.V., Evelazio de Souza, N., & Matsushita, M. (2000). Nutritional composition and vitamin C stability in stored camu-camu. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion, 50, 405-408.

Quercetin

Quercetin is a natural antioxidant in the form of a flavonoid. These chemicals are found in apples, tea, red wine, onions, and some other foods. This antioxidant works as all antioxidants do, to eliminate free radicals and minimize the damage they cause to cells throughout the body. Quercetin is unique in the fact that is also acts like an antihistamine and has anti-inflammatory properties as well.

For these reasons, quercetin may help reduce allergy symptoms by preventing the immune system from producing histamines. This could help symptoms of sneezing, runny nose, hives, and swelling of the face. Research is still needed, but it is highly effective in test tubes. Quercetin may also help lower LDL levels, which can help prevent heart disease, and also helps lower blood pressure. Lastly, more research is also needed in the area of cancer prevention, but quercetin and other flavonoids have been shown to reduce cancer cell growth. Another study found that quercetin may be associated with lower risk of lung cancer, especially in smokers.

Summary: Quercetin is a flavonoid antioxidant that has many potential health benefits including reduction of allergy symptoms, cholesterol levels, blood pressure, and cancer.

Citations: https://umm.edu/health/­medical/altmed/­supplement/quercetin

Tomato Concentrate

Tomatoes are highly nutrient-dense fruits. In addition to its basic nutritional value, tomatoes contain phytochemicals such as lycopene that have additional health benefits. Tomatoes also have high levels of vitamin C and other antioxidants that help keep cells healthy and functioning properly. Tomato concentrate is an easy way to ensure high levels of lycopene, vitamin, and mineral intake.

Lycopene is a carotenoid found in bright red fruits and vegetables. It has been linked, through many studies, with prostate cancer prevention. In association with the beta-carotene and dietary fiber also found in tomatoes, lycopene has been shown to help reduce risk of development of colorectal, stomach, and lung cancer. Fiber, potassium, vitamin C, and choline in tomatoes also help maintain heart health.

Summary: Tomato concentrate is a powerful way to increase beta-carotene and lycopene ingestion. These phytochemicals are linked to reduced cancer risk, and also function as antioxidants.

Citations: http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/273031.php
http://www.mayoclinic.org/­drugs-supplements/lycopene/­background/hrb-20059666

Broccoli Concentrate

Broccoli is a cruciferous vegetable, which places it in the same family as kale, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and other highly nutritious vegetables. This family of vegetables contains glucosinolates. These compounds break down through chewing, and products of this break down can help prevent cancer-causing carcinogens from damaging DNA. They also can alter metabolism or hormone activity in a way that inhibits development of hormone-sensitive cancers.

The high vitamin K content of broccoli is also beneficial for bone health and blood clotting. Broccoli is high in folate, which has been shown to help ensure proper growth and development, as well as reduction of risk of breast, colon, stomach, pancreatic, and cervical cancers. Broccoli also has the same antioxidants, although at a lower level, as broccoli sprouts (described above) and can have similar effects.

Summary: Broccoli concentrate is an effective way of getting the benefits of eating large amounts of broccoli. These benefits include cancer risk reduction, proper growth, and resistance to free radical damage.

Citations: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/­mic/food-beverages/­cruciferous-vegetables
http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/266765.php

Acai Concentrate

Acai is a dark purple fruit harvested from the acai palm native to Brazilian rainforests. It has been used as a medicinal fruit in parts of Brazil. This fruit has become incredibly popular in recent years. Some studies have shown that acai contains higher levels of antioxidants, especially polyphenols, than other berries such as raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, or cranberries.

Acai will have similar benefits to any food that is high in antioxidants; these include free radical fighting properties, heart health, eye health, and possible cancer risk reduction. Acai has also been studied in a pilot study that demonstrated some positive changes in fasting glucose and insulin levels, total cholesterol, LDL levels, HDL and LDL ratio, and reduced the post-meal increase in plasma glucose in overweight people after 30 days of supplementation. Although more research is needed, this study suggests that acai could have positive effects on metabolism and could aid in weight management.

Summary: Acai is a fruit with very high levels of antioxidants the potential to play a role in weight management. The concentrate form of this fruit provides its nutritional benefits in an efficient fashion.

Citations: http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/acai.html?­searchterm=acai
http://www.webmd.com/­diet/acai-­berries-and-acai-­berry-juice-what-are-­the-health-benefits

Udani, J.K, Singh, B.B., Singh, V.J., & Barrett, M.L. (2011). Effects of acai (euterepe oleracea mart.) preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: a pilot study. Nutrition Journal, 10, 1-7.

Turmeric Extract

This spice has been used in India for thousands of years in cooking, as well as a medicinal herb. Turmeric has chemical compounds known as curcuminoids, the most important of these is curcumin. Getting enough curcumin to have health effects is difficult just through seasoning foods, so using turmeric extract is an efficient way to get the anti-inflammatory benefits of curcumin in the diet.

Acute inflammation is what allows the body to repair itself and fight pathogens, but chronic inflammation is a health concern and plays a role in the development of many conditions such as heart disease, cancer, and other degenerative diseases. Curcumin has such strong anti-inflammatory abilities at the cellular level that it matches some over the counter anti-inflammatory drugs. This effect plays a role in joint health, and turmeric is often helpful for individuals with arthritis. Curcumin also helps the body stimulate its natural antioxidant enzymes to fight free radicals, boost immune system, reduce metastasis of cancer, boost mood through increasing serotonin and dopamine, and may have other benefits.

Summary: Turmeric is a spice that has incredible heath benefits that primarily include anti-inflammatory and immune boosting effects. IN addition, it can help protect the body from many chronic conditions, and turmeric extract is an easy way to ensure the body is receiving all of these benefits.

Citations: http://authoritynutrition.com/­top-10-­evidence-based-health-­benefits-of-turmeric/
http://www.bodybuilding.com/store/­turmeric.html?­searchterm=turm

Garlic Concentrate

Garlic is another ingredient commonly used in cooking. It is related to onions, leeks, and shallots. However, garlic has also been used as a medicinal herb throughout history, and supplementation with garlic can help with many medical conditions. A sulfur compound called allicin is how garlic protects itself from pests, and is one of the main ingredients that has health benefits.

Garlic supplementation has been known to boost immune function and reduce frequency of illnesses such as the common cold and flu. Garlic can also have positive effects on blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and fights oxidative damage from free radicals. Together, these effects can reduce risk of other conditions such as heart disease and dementia, and can lead to a longer, healthier life. Lastly, some animal studies, and a few preliminary human studies, have demonstrated that the tradition of using garlic as a performance enhancer may have a scientific basis. Rodents have increased exercise performance with garlic supplementation, and garlic has been researched as an anti-fatigue supplement.

Summary:Garlic is a common addition to the diet that has a multitude of tested health benefits including maintenance of healthy blood profiles, heart health, immunity, and increased exercise performance.

Citations: http://authori­tynutrition.com/­11-proven-health-­benefits-of-garlic/

Morihara, N., Nishihama, T., Ushijima, M., Ide, N., Takeda, H., & Hayama, M. (2007). Garlic as an anti-fatigue agent. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 51, 1329-1334

Basil Concentrate

Basil is an herb related to mint and is used as a seasoning in many dishes. Basil is used in traditional and alternative medicine. It’s medicinal properties are likely from essential oils containing high levels of polyphenols, which as stated multiple times above, have strong roles as antioxidants in the body. Basil is also high in vitamins A, K, and C, as well as potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron.

Basil contains high levels of beta-caryophyllene, which is a component of its oils. This chemical may be useful in the treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Carrying on this idea of anti-inflammatory properties, a study done in Great Britain showed that extracts of basil have been shown to reduce swelling after use.

Summary: In addition to its strong antioxidant properties, basil concentrate provides a concentrated source of the anti-inflammatory effects that this herb is known for.

Citations: http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/266425.php

Oregano Concentrate

Oregano is related to basil and mint, and is also common in both cooking and medicinal use. Oregano is full of antioxidants and anti-bacterial compounds. This herb also has a high concentration of vitamin K, vitamin E, fiber, iron, calcium, omega fatty acids, and tryptophan.

Oregano has been the subject of scientific study, and it has been found that its essential oils, especially one known as carvacol, are effective against food pathogens, and even MRSA. Oregano also has the same chemical as basil, beta-caryophyllene, that has significant anti-inflammatory effects. Lastly, oregano was studied in the United Arab Emirates, and was shown to aid in arresting breast cancer cell growth, and stimulating apoptosis (cell suicide).

Summary: Oregano is a common ingredient in cooking, but a concentrated form of this herb allows for higher levels of intake of the beneficial antioxidants and bacteria fighting components.

Citations: http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/266259.php

Falerio, L., Mighel, G., Gomes, S., Costa, L., Venacio, f., Teixiera, A…. Pedro, L.G. (2005). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils isolated from (cav.) and thymbra capitata l. oriaanum vulgare l. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53, 8162-8168

Cinnamon Concentrate

Cinnamon has been used as a spice for cooking and in herbal medication for hundreds of years. Cinnamon is the inner bark of a tree, which is then dried into cinnamon sticks. Cinnamon has been tested in vitro and in animals; evidence shows that the compound known as cinnamaldehyde and many polyphenols have multiple health benefits.

In a study that examined antioxidant activity of multiple spices, cinnamon had the highest level of polyphenol activity. This spice has also been tested to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-bacterial effects. It can help lower blood cholesterol levels of LDL (bad cholesterol), while raising HDL (good cholesterol) levels, which is beneficial for heart health. Cinnamon also has the ability to increase insulin sensitivity, which is beneficial for the absorption of glucose in the muscles and liver, especially in individuals with diabetes. Cinnamon may also stimulate cellular glucose metabolism, which increases overall metabolic rate.

Summary: Cinnamon concentrate is an effective way of ensuring high levels of cinnamon intake. This spice has many health benefits including antioxidant, antibacterial, and antitumor properties, in addition to its ability to mediate and encourage glucose metabolism at the cellular level.

Citations: http://authoritynutrition.com/­10-proven-benefits-of-cinnamon/

Gruenwald, J., Freder, J., & Armbruester, N. (2010). Cinnamon health. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 50 822-834.

Elderberry Concentrate

Elderberry usually comes from European elder, because some species of elder can be toxic. It has a tradition of use as a topical wound treatment, as well as treatment for respiratory illnesses when ingested. It has also been used to aid in treatment for cold and flu symptoms.

In addition to its reported immune boosting effects, elderberry has high levels of flavonoids, which are powerful antioxidants. Therefore, elderberry can help protect the body from reactive oxygen species that cause damage at the cellular and DNA level. These plant-based chemicals also have anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, anti-thrombolytic, anti-viral, and anti-cancer properties. One study in vitro demonstrated that elderberry could kill the H1N1 virus. Although this has yet to be proven in human studies, the intake of elderberry concentrate can help improve immune function, in addition to providing these other benefits.

Summary: Elderberry concentrate has been used traditionally to treat respiratory conditions and it has the potential, due to its high levels of flavonoids, to have many other health benefits. These include anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombolytic, anti-viral, and anti-cancer effects at the cellular level.

Citations: https://umm.edu/­health/medical/­altmed/herb/elderberry

Middleton, E.J., Kandaswami, C., & Theoarides, T. (2000). The effects of plant flavonoids on mammalian cells: implications for inflammation, heart disease, and cancer. Pharmacological reviews, 52, 673-751.

Carrot Concentrate

Carrots have been genetically selected to appear and taste as they do today, but they are still one of the most beneficial vegetables in the American diet. Along with all other colorful fruits and vegetables, carrots are high in antioxidants. Carrots are also an excellent source of vitamin A. Per serving, carrots contain 210% of the needed vitamin A per day. They are also good sources of fiber, vitamin C, calcium, iron, vitamin K, potassium, folate, manganese, phosphorous, magnesium, vitamin E, and zinc.

Beta-carotene is the main antioxidant in orange carrots, while red carrots have lycopene, and purple carrots have anthocyanin. These antioxidants, especially carotenoids, have been shown to have anti-cancer properties, so may help protect from conditions such breast, lung, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A study completed in 2011 also demonstrated that carrot juice extracts caused apoptosis (cell suicide) and stopped cell growth cycles of leukemia cells in vitro. The high level of vitamin A in carrots is also beneficial for vision and tissue health.

Summary: Carrot Concentrate provides the necessary levels of vitamin A, as well as other vitamins and minerals. It also supplies the body with antioxidants that have anti-cancer properties.

Citations: http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/270191.php

Zaini, R., Clench, M.R., & Le Maitre, C.L. (2011). Bioactive chemicals from carrot (daucas carota) juice extracts for the treatment of leukemia. Journal of Medicinal Food, 14, 1303-1312.

Mangosteen Concentrate

Mangosteen is a fruit that originated in Southeast Asia. All parts of the plant, including bark, rind, fruit, and fruit juice, are used in herbal medicine. It is also very sweet and can just be eaten or made into jams. The juice has become very popular in “health drinks.”

Similar to many other fruits and vegetables, mangosteen is rich with antioxidants. In a laboratory-based study, antioxidants from mangosteen decreased inflammation caused insulin resistance. This could translate to improved metabolism and absorption of glucose in the body. Claims have also been made that mangosteen can help treat symptoms of diarrhea, urinary tract infections, menstrual problems, and improve overall immune health.

Summary: Mangosteen concentrate provides high levels of antioxidants that have the potential to reduce systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. It may also help improve immune function.

Citations: http://www.bodybuilding.com/­fun/how-mangosteen-­enhances-health.htm?­searchterm=mangosteen
http://www.webmd.com/­vitamins-supplements/­ingredientmono-1081-mangosteen.aspx?­activeingredientid=­1081&activeingredient­name=mangosteen

Blackcurrant Extract

Blackcurrant is a shrub that is rare in the United States, but is widely used in Europe. Medicines are made from its leaves, fruit, and oils. Blackcurant oil is the most common medicinal supplement from this plant. It contains gamma-linoleic acid (GLA), which is an omega-6 fatty acid, vitamin C, and high levels of antioxidants.

Some studies have shown that GLA is beneficial in helping relieve joint pain and stiffness, especially in people with rheumatoid arthritis. These anti-inflammatory effects, along with the cellular protection provided by antioxidants, can also help the immune system function better and help prevent systemic inflammation that can lead to other chronic conditions. The vitamin C concentration of this extract allows for proper tissue growth, hormone production, and many other physical requirements.

Summary:Blackcurrant is a rare but highly beneficial supplement that is high in antioxidants and other anti-inflammatory components.

Citations: http://www.healthline.com/­health-­slideshow/health-­benefits-black-currant

Blueberry Extract

Blueberries are a common staple in the American diet, which is a good thing, because they have many health benefits. They have been categorized as a “superfood.” This is because a serving of blueberries contains high levels of fiber, vitamin C, vitamin K, manganese, antioxidants, and other nutrients. When eaten as a whole fruit, they are also low calorie, and highly nutrient dense.

Out of all commonly consumed fruits and vegetables, blueberries have the highest level of antioxidants, in particular a type of flavonoid called anthocyanins. These powerhouse chemicals not only help increase overall antioxidant levels in the body, but help reduce DNA damage, which can help reduce cancer risk. Studies have also shown that blueberries have the capacity to help lower blood pressure and bad cholesterol. Through lowering these risk factors, blueberries can potentially help reduce the risk of heart disease. Blueberry juice also has been studied for its impact on brain function; In elderly people, after 12 weeks, there was marked improvement in multiple areas of brain function. Lastly, because of their anti-inflammatory properties, flavonoids in blueberries have been found to help accelerate muscle recovery after exercise.

Summary: Blueberries are called a “superfood” for a reason; they have many powerful effects on the body that improve overall health. Blueberry extract is an efficient way of providing the body with nutrients that help reduce disease risk, and improve mental function and muscular recovery.

Citations: http://authoritynutrition.com/­10-proven-benefits­-of-blueberries/

Krikorian, R., Shidler, M.D., Nash, T.A., Kalt, W., Vinqvist-Tymchuk, M.R., Shukitt-Hale, B., & Joseph, J.A. (2010). Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 3996-4000.

Sweet Cherry Concentrate

Cherries are a stone fruit, and are rich in antioxidants. They also are high in fiber and vitamin C. They have a very short season, usually during the summer, so supplementing the diet with cherry concentrate can be a way to get the health benefits of this fruit throughout the year.

Cherries contain anthocyanins, cyanidin, carotenoids, and quercitin; all of these are powerful antioxidants that have been shown to have many positive physiological effects. First, similar to the antioxidants in other fruits, the cyanidin in cherries has been shown to cause apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human cancer cells. Cherry consumption has also been associated with a reduced level of uric acid, nitric oxide, and C-reactive protein. These are associated with inflammatory diseases such as gout. Therefore, it is likely that cherries also have anti-inflammatory properties that also translate to helping reduce systemic inflammation. This could help reduce arthritis pain, and reduce post-exercise soreness. This powerful fruit also contains melatonin. Melatonin is highly important in the regulation of the sleep cycle, so increasing consumption of cherries, or cherry concentrate, can help improve sleep quality and duration.

Summary: Cherries contain antioxidants that have multiple healthy effects, and melatonin that can help regulate and ensure high quality sleep for proper rest and recovery. Cherry extract is useful to have yearlong intake of these chemicals.

Citations: http://articles.­mercola.com/sites/­articles/archive/­2014/08/02/health-­benefits-cherries.aspx

Jacob, R.A., Spinozzi, G.M., Simon, V.A., Kelley, D.S., Prior, R.L., Hess-Pierce, B., & Kader, A.A. (2003). Consumption of cherries lowers plasma urate in healthy women. The Journal of Nutrition, 133, 1826-1829.

Blackberry Concentrate

Blackberries are another powerhouse fruit. Similar to other berries, it is very low calorie, and highly nutrient dense. They grow naturally across the United States, and were a staple in many Native American diets. They are rich in vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin A, fiber, manganese, and polyphenols. Consuming blackberry concentrate can maximize the amount of nutrition from this fruit.

Fiber alone helps lower cholesterol and aids digestion. The vitamin C and K help build strong skeletal and connective tissue, among other benefits. A 2013 study also demonstrated that blackberry extract can help reduce the concentrations of many types of oral bacteria. The fruit could help fight other strains of bacteria as well. Lastly, the powerful antioxidants in blackberries are anthocyanins; these give blackberries their rick, dark color. These chemicals can help the body fight genetic mutations and keeps the body healthy at a cellular level by fighting free radicals.

Summary: Blackberry concentrate is an effective method of ensuring quality intake of the nutrients of blackberries. These nutrients are beneficial for their antioxidant

Citations: http://www.livestrong.com/article/­70105-­blackberries-good/
http://www.livestrong.com/­article/231114­-what-are-the-health­-benefits-­of-blackberries/

Chokeberry Concentrate

Chokeberry, also known as aronia, is a member of the rose family, and is native to eastern North America. Due to its dark color, this berry has high levels of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins are a type of polyphenol that are powerful free radical scavengers, metal chelators, and enzyme inhibitors. They also protect the body against the oxidative degradation of lipids, and have antimicrobial properties.

Therefore, chokeberry has the potential to help protect the body against free radicals and the cellular and DNA damage that result from said free radicals. Its enzyme inhibition helps protect the structures of the body, such as collagen. The antioxidants in this fruit are also cardio protective, and reduce the risk of heart disease and systemic inflammation.

Summary: Chokeberry is a relative of the rose that is full of powerful antioxidants; its concentrate is a simple way to get its many benefits.

Citations: http://www.chicagobotanic.org/­plantinfo/­chokeberry_black
http://www.superberries.com/­healthbenefits

Cos, P., De Bruyne, T., Hermans, N., Apers, S., Berghe, D.V., & Vlietnick, A.J. (2004). Proanthocyanidins in healthcare: current and new trends. Current Medical Chemistry, 11, 1345-1359.

Raspberry Concentrate

Raspberries can vary in color, but all colors are nutritious, and one serving of red raspberries contains over half of daily vitamin C needs. They are also good sources of vitamin K, folate, vitamin E, iron, potassium, and manganese. In smaller amounts, raspberries also have thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and other nutrients. This fruit is also rich in antioxidants such as alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein, flavonoids, and polyphenols.

The flavonoids in berries have been linked to memory improvement in animal studies. These chemicals also help reduce blood pressure, prevent platelet buildup, and therefore help reduce risk of heart disease. A study that spanned 18 years demonstrated that anthocyanins, a type of polyphenol, can reduce risk of heart attack by up to 32%. The antioxidants in raspberries have also been shown to help prevent or slow the growth of many types of cancer. Lastly, the fiber content of raspberries helps maintain healthy digestion and keep blood sugar levels stable.

Summary: Raspberries are a common part of many diets, but by using its concentrate, their multitude of health benefits, including reduction of heart attack risk, cancer risk, and maintenance of blood sugar, are easily obtained.

Citations: http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/­283018.php

Spinach Concentrate

Spinach is a leafy green vegetable that is high in nutrients, yet low in calories. Spinach is a wonderful source of potassium; one cup of cooked spinach contains more potassium than one cup of banana. Spinach is also high in iron, magnesium, vitamin K, thiamine, and other nutrients.

Spinach contains an antioxidant known as alpha-lipoic acid, which has been shown to help lower glucose levels and is used as a supplemental treatment for people with diabetes. It also is high in beta-carotene, which is a form of vitamin A and has been shown to help reduce cancer risk, as well as risk of developing asthma. Its vitamin A content also ensures proper growth and development of tissues. The vitamin K concentration in spinach also helps maintain bone health; vitamin K intake improves the absorption of calcium. Lastly, the iron content of spinach can help support blood health and red blood cell production to ensure the body has adequate oxygen supply for energy production and exercise.

Summary: Spinach concentrate provides a large number of nutrients that are highly beneficial to the body. These include iron and potassium, as well as antioxidants and fiber.

Citations: http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/270609.php

Kale Concentrate

Kale has recently gained popularity in the American diet. Kale is a relative of cabbage, and is one of the most nutrient dense foods available. To start, one serving of raw kale has over 200% of the RDA of vitamin A (in the form of beta-carotene), over 600% of the RDA for vitamin K, and over 100% of the RDA for vitamin C. IT is also rich in vitamin B6, manganese, calcium, copper, potassium, and magnesium. Supplementing with kale, or kale concentrate, can dramatically increase the nutrient content in the diet.

Kale is high in antioxidants, which have many effects as mentioned multiple times above. These effects have been tested in vivo and in animals, and include fighting free radicals, lowering risk of cancer and heart disease, lowering blood pressure, and anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant, and anti-microbial properties. Consuming kale every day for 12 weeks has the potential to raise HDL and lower LDL, leading to a more desirable total cholesterol level and ratio. Studies also show that the lutein and zeaxanthin (both carotenoid antioxidants), can help prevent vision degeneration and cataracts.

Summary: Kale is one of the most nutrient dense foods that can be consumed. It has many benefits, including eye protection, lowering of cholesterol and blood pressure, and a high level of many essential vitamins and minerals.

Citations: http://authoritynutrition.com/­10-proven-­benefits-of-kale/

Kim, S.Y., Yoon, S., Kwon, S.M., Park, K.S., & Lee-Kim, Y.C. (2008). Kale juice improves coronary artery disease risk factors in hypercholesterolemic men. Biomedical and environmental sciences, 21,91-97.

Bilberry Extract

Bilberry is a plant from which the fruit and leaves are dried, and used to make herbal medicines. It has also traditionally been used in foods such as jams and pies. This fruit is related to the blueberry, and contains many antioxidants including vitamin C and anthocyanosides.

These anthocyanosides play a key role in the development of strong blood vessels and proper intake of these phytochemicals can help improve circulation and reduce risk of blood clots. This helps reduce symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency, which results from damage to the valves in the veins of the legs, reducing blood flow back to the heart. These effects, along with reducing LDL levels, lead to bilberry having the potential to reduce risk for atherosclerosis and heart disease or stroke. The anthocyanosides are also beneficial for vision, due to their retinal protective tendencies.

Summary: Bilberry concentrate is the most powerful form of bilberry, due to its high percentage of anthocyanosides, the active component and antioxidant of this fruit.

Citations: https://umm.edu/­health/medical/­altmed/herb/bilberry
https://www.nlm.nih.gov/­medlineplus/druginfo/­natural/202.html

Brussels Sprout Concentrate

Similar to kale, Brussels sprouts are a cruciferous vegetable, and a member of the cabbage family. They are high in protein for a vegetable, and one serving fulfills daily needs of vitamin C and vitamin K. Brussels sprouts also provide potassium, folate, manganese, and vitamin B-6. Brussels sprouts, and all cruciferous vegetables, have sulfur-containing compounds such as sulforaphane.

Sulforaphane has been tested against cancers such as melanoma, prostate, and pancreatic cancers and it has shown that it can help arrest a harmful enzyme that is involved in the development of cancer cells. This suggests that Brussels sprouts have potential to reduce risk and growth of cancer. The vitamin K concentration in this vegetable also helps increase calcium absorption, so supports healthy bone growth. Lastly, Brussels sprouts contain the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid, which can help regulate insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. This is beneficial for diabetics, as well as individuals looking to increase muscle and liver glycogen content.

Summary: Brussels sprout concentration is an effective way of ensuring the body receives the many benefits that come from these cruciferous vegetables. These benefits include cancer defense, antioxidant activity, bone and connective tissue support, and improved glucose absorption by cells.

Citations: http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/284765.php

Organic Acai

See above for benefits of acai (V(1)); p 19

Organic Maca

Maca comes from the root of a vegetable grown in the Andes mountains of Peru. It has been grown for thousands of years, and its root has been used in herbal medicines. Maca is very rich in amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins and minerals including iron, manganese, and copper. It has been traditionally used as an aphrodisiac, and a treatment for sexual dysfunction.

Limited human research has shown that maca can help support the hormonal systems in both men and women, and may affect sexual desire. Due to its high iron content, maca is also used to help treat anemia. It has been said to enhance energy and stamina, as well as help treat chronic fatigue syndrome. Maca also scavenges reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that cause cellular damage. This root has also been tested in animals, and has shown to have fatigue reducing effects in swimming mice. This suggests that it may be effective in improving energy levels and ability to maintain endurance, effects which would be highly beneficial for exercise.

Summary: Maca is a root that is sourced from areas of high elevation, and has been shown to have positive effects on sexual function, as well as antioxidant effects, and the potential to increase performance through reduced fatigue.

Citations: http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/­maca.html?­searchterm=maca
http://www.webmd.com/­vitamins-supplements/­ingredientmono­-555-maca.aspx?­active­ingredientid=555&­active­ingredientname=maca

Wang, Y., Wnag, Y., McNeil, B., & Harvey, L.M. (2007). Maca: an andean crop with multi-pharmacological functions. Food Research International, 40, 783-792.

Organic Carrot

See above for benefits of Carrot (V(1)); p 23

Organic Beet

Beetroot, also known just as beets, are increasing in popularity, especially as a component in juices and drinks. Beets are low calorie, and are a rich source of folate and manganese. They also contain vitamin A, calcium, vitamin C, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and other beneficial nutrients. Beets are also high in dietary nitrate, which can help increase the availability of nitrous oxide in the body. Nitrous oxide (NO) is vital to human physiology and plays a role in human performance.

NO modulates blood flow, muscle contractility, and mitochondrial metabolism among other physiological processes. Nitrate supplementation can reduce resting blood pressure, and lowers the oxygen cost of submaximal exercise. This has the potential to extend endurance and improve performance. Beets can also increase oxygen and blood flow to the brain, which can help prevent declines in cognition and reduce risk for dementia. Lastly, the alpha-lipoic acid that beets have, have the potential to increase glucose absorption and increase insulin sensitivity, which is beneficial for diabetics but can also help improve performance by increasing glycogen stores in the muscles and liver.

Summary: Beets are a rich source of many nutrients, but the nitrate concentration in this root can have positive effects on the brain, muscles, and circulatory system. Beets also contain the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid, which has positive metabolic effects.

Citations: http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/277432.php
http://www.gssiweb.org/­Article/sse-110­-dietary-nitrate-the­-new-magic-bullet-

Raspberry

See above for benefits of raspberry (V(1)); p 26.

Organic Rose Hips

In historical times, rose hips were a popular remedy for chest illnesses. They are a source of vitamin C, so are now included in many natural teas, supplements, soups, and jams. Rose hips also have vitamins A, B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), and K. They also include pectin, tannins, flavonoids, carotenoids, which are antioxidants, and other beneficial chemicals.

Rose hips are also used for their diuretic action, to reduce the sensation of thirst, and to relieve gastric problems. They are still also used to treat cold, flu, and other pulmonary conditions and symptoms. Although research is limited, the benefits of the many antioxidants that are components of rose hips can have benefits of cellular protection, reduced disease risk, improved immune function, among other effects.

Summary: Rose hips have been used for centuries in traditional medicines, and due to their high levels of vitamin C, antioxidants, and other biologically active components, can have a positive effect on disease risk, symptoms of respiratory illnesses, and gastric conditions.

Citations: http://www.drugs.com/npc/­rose-hips.html

Turkben, C., Ulayser, V., Incedayi, B., & Celikkol, I. (2010). Effects of different maturity periods and processes on nutritional components of rose hip (rosa cania l.). Journal of food, agriculture, & environment, 8, 26-30.

Organic Pineapple

Pineapple is a tropical fruit that is believed to have originated in South America. This fruit is incredibly high in vitamin C; one cup of pineapple provides over 100% of daily needs. It also has vitamin A, calcium, iron, beta-carotene, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, and many other vitamins and minerals. Fresh pineapple is also the only known source of an enzyme called bromelain. This enzyme has been studied for multiple health effects, including reducing joint pain, arthritis, inflammation, tumor growth, and recovery time post-surgery.

The many health benefits associated with fruits and vegetables also apply to pineapple. This fruit can help reduce risk of cancers, asthma, heart disease, and diabetes. It’s chemical components help lower blood pressure, help maintain efficient digestion, ensure healthy skin and tissues, and reduce inflammation. Bromelain has also been found to reduce swelling, pain, and healing time from surgery. This enzyme is used to ease symptoms of sprains, tendinitis, and other minor injuries.

Summary: Pineapple, and its main biologically active enzyme, bromelain, are beneficial for many reasons but notably for its ability to help reduce inflammation and improve recovery from minor soft tissue injury, and surgery.

Citations: http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/276903.php

Maurer, H.R. (2001). Bromelain; biochemistry, pharmacology and medical use. Cellular and molecular life sciences, 58, 1234-1245.

Green Tea

See above for benefits of Green Tea (V(1)); p 16

Acerola Cherry

See above for benefits of Acerola Cherry (V(1)); p 17

=

L-Carnitine Complex

See below for benefits of L-Carnitine Complex (P(3)); p 37

R-Alpha Lipoic Acid

Alpha lipoic acid is a powerful antioxidant that has been the subject of much research as of late, and has been shown to have many beneficial physiological effects. There is some natural level of alpha-lipoic acid in the body, but supplementation can help ensure the antioxidant properties are being obtained. Alpha-lipoic acid is the only antioxidant that can defend the body against both fat- and water-soluble free radicals; all other antioxidants are fat- or water-soluble only.

Alpha-lipoic acid helps protect against oxidative damage and the many disease this cellular damage has been related to. In addition to its unique properties as an antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid also increases glucose uptake into cells, increases insulin sensitivity, and can help protect against the nerve damage associated with diabetes. Alpha-lipoic acid has also been studied to increase the amount of creatine that can be stored in the muscle, and increases EPO (erythropoietin) levels within the body.

Summary: Alpha-lipoic acid is a universal antioxidant that also has many effects on metabolism and body chemistry, such as increasing glucose absorption, muscle creatine concentration, and EPO levels. These effects have the potential to improve overall health, and increase performance.

Citations:Morawin, B., Turowski, D., Naczk, M., Siatkowski, I., & Zembron-Lacny, A. (2014). The combination of α-lipoic acid intake with eccentric exercise modulates erythropoietin release. Biology of Sport, 31, 179-185.

Packer, L., Witt, E. H., & Trirschler, H. J. (1995). Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 19, 227-250.

Smith, J. D., & Clinard, V. B., (2014). Natural products for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and comorbid conditions. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 55, 304-320.

Turmeric Powder

See above for benefits of Turmeric (V(1)); p 20

Citrus Bioflavonoids Complex

Citrus fruits are known for their high levels of vitamin C content. They are also high in flavonoids, which are antioxidants found in many plant sources. Bioflavonoids are biologically active flavonoids that can have health benefits. Bioflavonoids in citrus fruits include quercitin, rutin, hesperidin, and naringin.

These chemicals seem to work with vitamin C to fight free radicals. They also have other benefits including minimizing cellular death and damage, immune system support, and improving circulatory health via strengthening capillaries. Although no set dose of bioflavonoids has been determined through research or study, these components appear to have a very low toxicity.

Summary: Ingesting a bioflavonoid complex provides a high concentration of biologically active antioxidants that can help protect the body from inflammation, immune weakness, and cellular damage.

Citations: https://www.swanson­vitamins.com/­content/­encyclopedia/supplements/­citrus-bioflavonoids.html

Oat (straw) powder

Oat straw and oatmeal have very similar nutritional profiles, but oat straw is made of the entire plant, including the stalk while oatmeal is simply the grain. This causes oat straw to have a higher vitamin A and C content than oats. Both oatmeal and oat straw powder are high in carbohydrates and protein; this lowers the glycemic index of energy source and allows for a slower absorption of nutrients.

Oats are well studied for their cholesterol-lowering abilities. They are high in antioxidants, and have the ability to lower inflammation, and help fight diseases such as atherosclerosis and heart disease. A 2011 study also reported that oat herb supplementation can improve attention, focus, and concentration in older adults. Lastly, the low glycemic-index of oats helps control blood sugar; compared to other grains including barley, consuming oats led to lower blood concentrations of glucose and insulin.

Summary: Oat straw powder has many of the same benefits as oatmeal, including reduction of inflammation, disease risk, and blood sugar, but also has higher vitamin levels due to its stalk and grain content.

Citations: http://www.livestrong.com/­article/­557691-side-effects-­and-benefits-of-the-­long-term­-use-of-oatstraw/
http://www.medical­newstoday.com/­articles/270680.php

DigeSEB Plus®

The salivary glands, stomach, and pancreas naturally produce digestive enzymes in the body. Along with enzymes found naturally in foods, these allow for the breakdown of food through the digestive system for absorption, and ultimately energy availability.

DigeSEB Plus is a combination of digestive enzymes that aid those naturally produced by the body. They include alpha and beta amylase (produced by the salivary glands), invertase, maltase, alpha galatosidase, lipase, cellulose, and other enzymes. This array allows for proper digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and protein. This formula has two high-activity proteases added in order to improve protein digestion. The higher availability of enzymes can help improve overall digestive function, and reduce symptoms of indigestion, gas, and bloating.

Summary: DigeSeb Plus ® aids the body’s natural production of digestive enzymes in order to ensure there are enzymes to properly digest all food that is ingested. This minimizes digestive system discomfort, and can improve nutrient availability for absorption.

Citations: http://www.specialtyenzymes.com/­node/32
https://www.astenzymes.com/­digest-gi/digeSEB-gi

RNA Yeast Powder

Yeast comes from a fungus, and is also used in making beer. However, it is deactivated, so it is non-living. Yeast is considered to be a probiotic This is because it contains micro flora that help maintain the digestive system and relieve diarrhea. When used as a supplement, yeast is a rich source of protein in the form of amino acids, chromium, selenium, and B vitamins.

Chromium helps moderate blood sugar levels, and the B-complex vitamins help with carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. This ensures the body has an ample supply of energy. The B vitamins also support health immune and nervous system function.

Summary: Yeast is a useful supplement that provides additional protein to the diet, helps maintain healthy blood sugar levels, and is high in B vitamins that have a role in maintaining efficient metabolism.

Citations: https://umm.edu/­health/­medical/altmed/­supplement/­brewers-yeast
http://www.webmd.com/­vitamins-supplements/­ingredientmono-715-brewer'­s%20yeast.aspx?­active­ingredientid=715&­active­ingredientname=­brewer's%20yeast
http://www.healthline.com/­health/­brewers-­yeast#Overview1

PABA (4-Aminobenzoic Acid)

PABA is considered to be a form of a B-vitamin, and is sometimes called vitamin Bx, but it is truly different from a vitamin. This is a non-essential nutrient that can be found in yeast, liver, molasses, mushrooms, spinach, and whole grains. PABA is generally considered to be safe, but reactions to an allergy or overdose can be severe.

PABA is helpful for protection from UV rays. For this reason, it is often included in sunscreen products. It has also been studied for its effects on fertility, and although more testing is needed, data suggests that PABA can have beneficial results in improving chances of pregnancy in infertile women. PABA also has been shown to help improve skin conditions such as vitiligo and reactions to food allergies. However, caution must be used when supplementing with PABA because allergy or overdose (much less common) can cause rash, fever, liver failure, coma, and stupor among other symptoms.

Summary: PABA is a useful supplement that can help protect the skin from damaging UV rays, as well as other conditions.

Citations: http://www.livestrong.com/­article/­418608-benefits-of­-the-supplement-paba/
http://www.livestrong.com/­article/­418608-benefits-of­-the-supplement-paba/

Inositol Powder

Inositol is also known as vitamin B8. It can be found in many plant and animal sources including citrus, nuts, seeds, melons, kidney beans, and bran. Within the body, the highest concentrations of inositol are in the heart and the brain. Inositol is also a lipotropic chemical.

Low levels of this chemical can have effects on mood and neural communication. Inositol has been shown to have benefits for controlling panic attacks and helping with symptoms of OCD. More research can help further connect the effects of inositol and mental disorders. The lipotropic components of this element of the B vitamin complex help transport lipids in the body and aid in the conversion of nutrients into energy. This increase in metabolic rate and mobilization of fat could lead to fat loss. Inositol can also have benefits for the skin and hair.

Summary: Inositol is a naturally occurring chemical that has positive effects on metabolism that could lead to weight loss. It also can help improve mood and mental function, and is supportive of skin and hair health.

Citations: http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/inos.html?­searchterm=inosito
http://www.webmd.com/­vitamins-supplements/­ingredientmono-299-inositol.aspx?­activeingredientid=299&­activeingredientname=inositol
http://inositol-powder.com/what-is-inositol/

Blue Green Algae

Blue green algae is a broad term that covers a large variety of simple organisms found in both salt- and fresh water environments. They have been used as food or medicine for hundreds of years. These plant-like organisms contain carotenoids, fibers, and other components. They are a good source of protein, B vitamins, and iron.

Several studies have demonstrated that blue green algae can lower triglyceride levels, lower inflammation at the cellular level, and have antioxidant capabilities. Blue green algae can scavenge free radicals and reduce lipid peroxidation, which damages tissues. This ability to lower oxidative stress upon the body can reduce the risk of metabolic and inflammatory conditions.

Summary: Blue green algae is a healthful source of protein and antioxidants that have metabolic and anti-inflammatory benefits.

Citations: http://www.webmd.com/­vitamins-supplements/­ingredientmono-923-blue-green%20algae.aspx?­activeingredientid=­923&activeingredientname­=blue-green%20algae

Ku, C.S., Yang, Y., Park, Y., & Lee, J. (2013). Health benefits of blue-green algae: prevention of cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Journal of Medicinal Food, 16, 103-111.

C(2)

Creatine Monohydrate ((Creapure®) Ultrapure Creatine Monohydrate)

Creatine occurs naturally in the body, and is converted back and forth between phosphocreatine and creatine in the muscle cell. The transfer of the phosphate group from phosphocreatine to ADP creates a new ATP and free creatine. This is the body’s most instantaneous and basic form of energy production, and occurs directly in the muscle. However, within about 30 seconds of intense exercise, ATP turnover slows, and the body resorts to other forms of energy production, such as glycolysis and aerobic metabolism.

Supplementation with creatine monohydrate can increase both free creatine and phosphocreatine stores in the muscle, allowing for improved intracellular ATP regeneration and maintenance of muscle power. Creatine supplementation requires a loading period, in which the muscles become saturated; studies have shown that an increase in muscle creatine concentration by 20mmol/kg of dry weight is needed to see changes in performance. Creatine has been shown to decrease fatigue over repeated sprint testing, increase number of repetitions performed on bench and leg press, and overall improvements in strength training. Lastly, in a hyper-caloric state with proper training, supplementation with creatine can create an environment for muscle growth.

Summary: Creapure® is the most trusted source of pure creatine monohydrate available. This supplement increases phosphocreatine stores in the body, which allows for increased training ability, muscle growth, and increase in strength when combined with effective training and healthy diet.

Citations: http://hpnsupplements.com/­product/c2-creapure/
http://www.bodybuilding.com/­fun/likness2.htm

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

P(3)

PeptoPro® Hydrolyzed Caseinate

PeptoPro is developed from milk casein, and then hydrolyzed with enzymes twice, in order to reduce bitterness. This unique form of protein is already in small branch di- and tri-peptides, which eliminate the need for the body to break down long amino acid chains before absorption, and contains all twenty amino acids needed for muscle synthesis. Through consuming protein in this form pre-workout, it is quickly available for use in the muscle.

PeptoPro has the ability to put the body into a positive nitrogen state very quickly due to its fast absorption; this allows for muscle growth. Human studies have shown that ingesting CHO and PeptoPro prior to exercise can help improve performance as well. This product is tested by an outside organization and has been determined to be safe for human consumption and is allowed in all countries.

Summary: PeptoPro is the fastest acting all natural protein available due to is hydrolyzed form. It has been developed to help promote energy gain and recovery after exercise.

Citations: http://proteinfactory.com/­product/pepto-pro/
http://hpnsupplements.com/­product/­p3-pure-energy-powder/

Palatinose Isomaltulose

This compound is a naturally occurring disaccharide that is composed of glucose and fructose. Some animal studies show that isomaltulose is hydrolyzed and absorbed in the small intestine, but its rate of absorption is very slow. This prevents a spike in insulin, making this compound favorable for individuals with insulin resistance or diabetes. Due to this compound’s low glycemic index and slow stimulation of insulin resistance, it provides energy while preventing the inhibition of fat metabolism caused by spikes in insulin.

The unique characteristics of this sweetener have been tested in Germany and Japan, and have demonstrated that consumption of palatinose isomaltulose led to a higher level of free fatty acids as compared to a dextrin-based fluid. Additionally, for athletes in Germany, ingestion of palatinose led to 25% higher fat use for energy during a test run. This compound is safe and well accepted by most individuals, and provides steady energy while encouraging fat metabolism in the body.

Summary: Palatinose isomaltulose is a special sugar compound that is absorbed slowly so prevents the body from having a high insulin response. This ensures that there is a supply of energy from glucose and fructose, yet also allows the body to continue to use its own fat for fuel, increasing performance ability.

Citations: http://www.health24.com/­Diet-and-nutrition/­Nutrition-basics/­Palatinose-a-new­-type-of-sugar-20130210
http://www.nutritioninsight.com/­news/­Isomaltulose-Promotes­-Fat-Burning-Study.html

Lina, B.A., Jonker, D., & Kozianowski, G., (2002). Isomaltulose (Palatiniose®): a review of biological and toxicological studies. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40, 1375- 1381.

Clintose® CR10 Dextrose Equivalent Maltodextrin

This compound is a saccharide, or sugar, that is non-sweet and used in many instant beverage mixtures, dairy products, baked goods, salad dressings, and snacks among other processed foods to help prevent browning, bind things together, increase viscosity, and maintain integrity of a product.

Clintose® CR10 has minimal flavor and coloring so it does not interfere with product flavors. The process by which ADM produces this naturally sourced carbohydrate keeps it stable and pure. It is highly soluble so allows for delivery of nutrients to the body.

Summary: Clintose® CR10 is produced from natural carbohydrates, is stable and safe, increasing the integrity of the product while causing no interference with other ingredients or taste.

Citations: http://www.adm.com/­_layouts/­ProductDetails.aspx?productid=32
http://www.hawkinswatts.com/­documents/­ClintoseMaltodextrin.pdf
http://hpnsupplements.com/­product/­p3-pure-energy-powder/

Creapure® Ultrapure Creatine Monohydrate

See above (C(2)) for info; p 34

CarroSyn® Beta-Alanine

Beta-Alanine is a component of the dipeptide known as Carnosine. Carnosine is found naturally in the body, in areas such as the brain, kidneys, heart, and skeletal muscle. In the muscle, it is found mostly in Type II fibers, also known as fast-twitch muscle fibers. Carnosine is a hydrogen ion buffer, and although supplementation with carnosine is ineffective, it has been shown that supplementation with beta-alanine can lead to an increase in muscle carnosine content by 60-80%. This increase improves H+ buffering out of the muscle cell, and can lead to an increase in high-intensity performance.

High levels of beta-alanine in acute doses can lead to symptoms such as flushing and tingling of the skin. Combining beta-alanine and creatine has been shown to have a beneficial effect on strength and lean body composition, as compared to creatine alone. CarroSyn® is most current, and best form of beta-alanine available for use. Because beta-alanine increases strength endurance, it is included in many pre-workout formulas. Not only does this strength endurance allow for more calories to be expended in the gym, but it can increase calorie expenditure out of the gym as well, aiding in fat loss.

Summary: CarroSyn® beta-alanine is the best form of beta-alanine on the market, and with regular consumption can improve strength, endurance, power, help with recovery and development of muscle mass, and promote fat loss. By helping remove waste from the muscles, it allows for improved performance.

Citations: Cambell, B.I. & Spano, M.A. (2011). NSCA’s guide to sport and exercise nutrition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
http://www.bodybuilding.com/­fun/your-expert­-guide-to-carnosyn­-beta-alanine.html

L-Carnitine (as L-Carnitine Complex)

L-Carnitine is a compound naturally produced by the body, and found in meat and dairy. It has, in the past twenty years, received a high amount of attention as a supplement to the diet. It is generally described as a fat burner, and its mechanism of action may be through the conversion of fatty acids into fuel that the body can use, as well as creating an internal environment that promotes muscle growth.

L-Carnitine transports long chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane, where they can then be broken down into acetyl-CoA which can then be used by the citric acid cycle to provide energy. L-Carnitine also helps prevent the accumulation of lactic acid and hydrogen ion buildup; this allows for increased high-intensity performance during exercise. Through these effects, L-Carnitine has the potential to stimulate muscle development and fat metabolism without the potential side effects of a stimulant fat burner.

Summary: L-Carnitine is a natural compound that allows the mitochondria to use long chain fatty acids as an energy source. It also helps establish a healthy environment for training through buffering lactic acid and its byproducts from the muscle, allowing for improved training and growth.

Citations: http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/lcarn.html

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

L-Citrulline D, L-Malate

Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid found in melons, and malate is found in apples. Put together in a compound, these ingredients have been used in Europe to treat some symptoms of dementia, fatigue, and muscle weakness. Citrulline increases the body’s levels of arginine; arginine and l-arginine have been popular as a supplement for years as a way to increase nitric oxide function. Nitric oxide helps regulate blood flow, O2 delivery, muscle power, and muscle growth amongst other things. This chain reaction suggests that supplementation with L-Citrulline D, L-Malate can also have these effects. Citrulline also helps remove ammonia from the body. Both anaerobic and aerobic exercise produces ammonia and other toxins. Adding citrulline to the diet can help reduce symptoms of fatigue and slow recovery associated with the buildup of these chemicals.

Malate is an intermediary component of the Krebs cycle, one of the pathways in which the human body produces ATP. A study done in 2002 demonstrated that supplementation can actually increase the rate of ATP production during exercise, which allows for longer sustained work. Together, these ingredients create a supplement that has been researched to enhance anaerobic performance and reduce post-exercise muscle soreness.

Summary: L-Citrulline D, L-Malate is a combination of two naturally occurring components that allow for improved muscle strength, blood flow, and increased energy availability. Additionally, it helps remove toxins that inhibit performance and recovery, further improving the effectiveness of training.

Citations: http://www.bodybuilding.com/­fun/jrod3.htm

Perez-Guisado, J.& Jakeman, P.M. (2010). Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relives muscles soreness. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24, 1215-1222.

Caffeine Anhydrous

Caffeine anhydrous is essentially caffeine, but with little to no water content (only 0.5%). It can be said that caffeine is more potent in this form, but it has the same effects of caffeine. Caffeine is found in many natural substances such as coffee beans, tea leaves, cocoa beans, and cola nuts. The effects of caffeine on performance have been well studied.

Caffeine is a stimulant, affects the central nervous system, and provides a burst of energy. For this reason, it is a popular ergogenic supplement. Ingestion of caffeine has been shown to increase both endurance and maximal exercise performance. Caffeine is also beneficial for weight loss, because it stimulates lipolysis, and freeing of fatty acids in the body. This provides energy, and burns fat stores. As an additional benefit, this chemical also improves mental clarity and function.

Summary: Caffeine is a stimulant that provides energy, focus, and increases fat metabolism. When added into a pre-workout, this chemical provides an effective way to improve performance.

Citations: http://hprc-online.org/dietary­-supplements/opss/­operation-supplement­-safety-OPSS/­opss-frequently­-asked­-questions-faqs-1/­what2019s-the­-difference­-between-caffeine-and­-caffeine­-anhydrous
http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/­caffeine.html

Jeukendrup, A. & Gleeson, M. (2010). Sport nutrition: An introduction to energy production and performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics

PureEnergy (Pterostibene & Caffeine Co-Crystal)

A bonded form of caffeine and pTeroPure, PureEnergy is a novel ingredient that delivers more caffeine to the blood, with a slower absorption rate to ensure a more stable boost of energy. This allows for an extended effect, of about 25% longer than ordinary caffeine. This allows for a lower amount of caffeine to be used in this product, while still delivering the same effects of stimulation and energy. pTeroPure, the other ingredient in this compound, helps deliver nutrients and provides sustained energy and vasodilation. This ingredient is the only pterostilbene that has been regulated to be generally regarded as safe, or GRAS, for human consumption. Pterostilbene is the primary antioxidant found in blueberries, and promotes hearth health, cognitive function, healthy metabolism, and has antioxidant effects.

Summary: PureEnergy is a revolutionary compound that allows for a smaller dose of caffeine to have enduring effects. This will increase performance and energy, while sustaining focus and preventing a “crash” that is often associated with caffeine supplements.

Citations: http://hpnsupplements.com/­product/­p3-pure-energy-powder/
https://chromadex.com/­Ingredients/­PurEnergy.html
https://chromadex.com/­ingredients/­pteropure.html

McCormack, D. & McFadden, D. (2013). A review of pterostilbene antioxidant activity and disease modification. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 1-15.

N(4)

Vitamin E

See Above (Pro(Zero)) for effects of Vitamin E; p 2

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)

Cold-water fatty fish including salmon, tuna, and sardines are a great natural source if EPA. Fish oil is a natural source of EPA.

Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)

DHA is also found naturally in cold-water fatty fish, and fish oil.

Other Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Alpha-linoleic acid, or ALA, is another omega-3 fatty acid, and is more common in the Western diet because it is found in vegetable oils, nuts, flaxseed, leafy vegetables, and some animal fat.

Most people get more than enough omega-6 fatty acids in their diet, but are lacking in omega-3 fatty acids. Often times the American diet provides 14-25 times more omega-6 than omega-3 fatty acids. Both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, meaning that the human body cannot make them; they must be obtained through the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are necessary for the creation of cell membranes, are involved in the creation of hormones, and have an effect on the contraction and relaxation of artery walls.

Omega-3 fatty acids are also known to have a wide variety of health benefits, including cardiovascular protection, and anti-inflammatory effects. Some studies have demonstrated anticancer benefits, anti-aging, anti-arthritis, anti-hypertension, and increases in insulin sensitivity associated with the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, supplementation with fish oil, such as the pure form found in N(4), can ensure proper intake of omega-3 fatty acids to provide the body with this compound’s many benefits.

Summary: Essential omega-3 fatty acids such as EPA, DHA, and ALA have many health benefits including helping to reduce and prevent inflammation in the body and protect the heart. Because they are not produced in the body, supplementation is recommended to ensure that the proper levels of omega-3 fatty acids are consumed.

Citations: http://hpnsupplements.com/­product/­n4-ultra-­platinum-grade-omega/
http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/­nutritionsource/­omega-3-fats/
https://umm.edu/­health/medical/­altmed/supplement/­omega6-fatty-acids

T(5)

Testofen® Fenugreek Extract

Fenugreek is an herb native to Southern Europe and Asia. It has been in use since at least 1500B.C. It has been used in cooking, and as an alternative treatment for a variety of health concerns including diabetes, loss of appetite, gastrointestinal problems, stimulation of milk in breastfeeding women, and sexual problems. It has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and diuretic effects. Fenugreek is safe with small doses, and has low toxicity.

Animal studies have demonstrated that Fenugreek has the potential to lower plasma glucose and cholesterol, while lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL), also known as the bad cholesterol, and increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), the good cholesterol. A study by Shim et al. (2008) demonstrated that saponins from fenugreek seeds increased the release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland of rats. Lastly, in a study completed in 2015, after treatment with Fenugreek during a two- menstrual cycle period, healthy women had an increase in sexual desire, but more importantly, increased levels of estradiol and free testosterone compared to the placebo (Rao, Steels, Beccaria, Inder, & Vietta, 2015).

Summary: Fenugreek is a natural herb that has been used for centuries to treat many conditions and has the potential for increasing natural testosterone levels in the body, as well as stimulating the release of growth-hormone. These effects could improve performance and muscle growth.

Citations: http://www.drugs.com/­mtm/­fenugreek.html
http://www.body­building.com/­store/­fenu.html?­searchterm­=fenugreek
http://www.swan­sonvitamins.com/­swanson-ultra-­testofen-­fenugreek-extract­-300-mg-60-veg-caps

Shim, S.H., Lee, E.J., Kim, J.S., Kang, S.S., Ha, H., Lee, H.Y… Son, K.H. (2008). Rat growth-hormone release stimulators from fenugreek seeds. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 5, 1753-1760.
Rao, A., Steels, E., Beccaria, G., Inder, W.J., & Vietta, L. (2015). Influence of a specialized trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract (libifem) on testosterone, estradiol, and sexual function in healthy menstruating women, a randomized placebo controlled study. Phytotherapy Research, 29, 1123-1130.

LJ100© (Eurycoma longifolia root extract)

Also known as Tongkat Ali, eurycoma longifolia is another herbal medicinal plant that originated in South-East Asia. It has been used traditionally for its antimalarial properties, ulcer prevention, fever reduction, and as an aphrodisiac. Studies on rats have shown that use of eurycoma longifolia root increased sexual arousal in male rats. It has been suggested that eurycoma longifolia can support testosterone levels and promote energy, endurance, and stamina.

It is recommended to take eurycoma longifolia orally, as other methods such as injection raise the risk of toxicity. Further research is needed to develop a recommended dose, and to determine the effects in human studies.

Summary: Eurycoma longifolia root has been reported to increase testosterone levels, as well as increase sexual arousal. An increase in testosterone levels can lead to an increase in muscle bulk and strength, higher bone density, and improved fat burning.

Citations: http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/source/­tongkat-ali.html?­searchterm=tongk

Bhat, R., Karim, A.A., (2010). Tongkat ali (eurycoma longifolia jack): a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance. Fitoterapia, 81, 669-679.

AstraGinTM (Panax Natoginseng and Astragalus Membranaceus Root)

AstraGin is a derivative of the plants above, and is used to support and increase absorption of many nutrients that are vital for human cells. These nutrients include amino acids, glucoseamine, and vitamins. By increasing the amount of amino acids absorbed in the small intestine, AstraGin allows for more bioavailability of these amino acids in the body. Because amino acids are the building blocks of proteins, this ideally creates an environment for protein synthesis and muscle growth.

AstraGin is also beneficial, as shown by in-vivo studies to reduce and repair intestinal wall inflammation, which will further improve nutrient absorption. It has been tested in an twenty-eight day oral toxicity study, and has been labeled as GRAS, or generally recognized as safe. AstraGin has also been certified by NSF International.

Summary: AstraGin is a certified safe natural food ingredient that has been proven to help improve bioavailability and absorption of amino acids, vitamins, and glucosamine, which can improve muscle quality and performance.

Citations: http://nulivscience.com/­astragin/
https://getastragin.com

Saw Palmetto Powder (Serenoa repens)(Berry)

Saw Palmetto is a palm tree native to the southeastern US, and its berry was used as a food source and tonic by Native Americans in Florida. It has been traditionally used for treatment of urinary and prostatic conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia. By reducing symptoms of an enlarged prostate, saw palmetto can help improve function.

Saw palmetto has also been used as a supplement for symptoms of low sperm count, low libido, and seems to increase testosterone levels by reducing the transformation of testosterone to DHT. This has the potential to increase testosterone available to the muscle, because muscles are the only androgen dependent tissues that do not use DHT.

Summary: Saw Palmetto is a natural product that can increase testosterone levels and improve urinary function. Through increasing available testosterone in the body, there is an increased availability for building muscle mass.

Citations: https://www.mountain­roseherbs.com/­products/­saw-palmetto-­berry-powder/profile
http://www.drugs.com/npp/saw-palmetto.html
http://www.mayoclinic.org/­drugs-supplements/­saw-palmetto/­evidence/hrb-20059958
http://www.healthline.com/­health-slideshow/­testosterone-saw-palmetto
http://www.bodybuilding.com/­fun/reform8.htm

Bioperine® Black Pepper Extract

Black pepper extract, in the form of piperine, increases the bioavailability of nutrients in the body. It has been shown to increase the absorption of fat soluble vitamins such as beta-carotene, water soluble vitamins such as vitamin B6, minerals, and amino acids. All of these nutrients are key components in healthy growth and development. By increasing bioavailability, the cells of the body have more to work with in the growth and repair of muscle tissue.

Piperine, as an extract of black pepper, also increases the body’s natural thermogenicactivity. Thermogenesis is the production of heat within the body, and a portion of that is determined by the diet. Bioperine allows for the body to increase its metabolic processes, which increases the demand for nutrients that this extract also makes available.

Summary: Bioperine is a black pepper extract that increases both thermogenesis and availability of nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and amino acids within the body. Both of these effects can improve metabolism.

Citations: http://www.bioperine.com/­about-bioperine.html

M(6)

Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin)

See above for full effects of Vitamin B12 (Pro(Zero)), but supplementing directly with methylcobalamin eliminates the step of conversion in the body in which the cells convert cyanocobalamin into methylcobalamin, because the body has no used for the cyanide group. Therefore, in addition to the multiple benefits of Vitamin B12, this form is more efficient than the typical multivitamin or B Vitamin supplement.

Summary: This form of Vitamin B12 is ready for use in the body to

Citations: http://www.methylcoba­lamininfo.com/­methylcobalamin­-vs-cyanocobalamin/

Glucoronolactone

Typically found in energy drinks or ergogenic and pre-workout supplements, glucoronolactone is a natural metabolic component of the breakdown of glucose, and helps regulate the formation of glucose within the body. Glucoronolactone also has been shown in rats to have potential as an ergogenic aid by allowing glycogen synthesis. Glycogen is the preferred source of fuel by muscles during exercise. Having higher glycogen stores in the muscle and liver potentially would improver performance due to higher availability of fuel.

Glucoronolactone has been established to be safe in the amounts found in supplements and energy drinks through animal studies and it is quickly metabolized by the body. This further reduces its potential for toxicity, although human model studies are still lacking. A Chinese study performed in 2001 found that an herbal supplement in which glucoronolactone is a component has protective effects in the liver; this suggests that glucoronolactone is safe for human consumption.

Summary: Glucoronolactone is a natural component of the breakdown of glucose that allows the body to have a higher availability of glucose in the muscle. This allows for greater utilization during exercise, and the potential for more calories burned during exercise.

Citations: http://www.bodybuilding.com/­fun/jrod15.htm

Tamurka, S., Tomizawa, S., Tsutsumi, S., Suguro, N., Kizu, K., Ito, H…. Masuda, M. (2007). Metabolism of glucuronic acid in fatigue due to physical exercise. The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 16, 138-156.

Guarana (seed) Extract (22% Caffeine)

Guarana is an herb that originated in Brazil, and is a natural source of caffeine. It has recently made an appearance in many sodas and energy drinks, as well as weight loss supplements. It has been shown to have stimulant effects, due to its caffeine content, as well as hunger suppressing tendencies. The hormone ephedrine, when combined with caffeine, promotes thermogenesis, and can have induce lipolysis, which is the breakdown and metabolism of fat stores.

Guarana is relatively safe to use, and mixes well with other ingredients. This seed has been shown to have 3-5% caffeine content by try weight, compared to coffee at 1-2%. Therefore, nervousness and insomnia can be side effects of using this herbal supplement. However, it’s potential to increase energy and increase fat metabolism make it a highly popular ingredient.

Summary: Guarana is a natural plant with a high caffeine content. This chemical composition can, when taken in a supplement, increase energy, metabolism, and support fat loss.

Citations: http://www.bodybuilding.com/­store/guarana.html?­searchterm=guarana
http://www.drugs.com/­npp/­guarana.html#ref11

Caffeine Anhydrous

See Above (P(3)) for info; p 38

ProC3GTM Cyanidin-3-Glucoside (from Black Rice Extract)

Black rice is full of antioxidants in the form of anthocyanin pigments, which are protective in the human body. Antioxidants fight against damage-causing free radicals such as reactive oxygen species in the body. These free radicals build up during oxidative stress; exercise places the body into oxidative stress, so antioxidants play a large role in the health of an active person’s body. ProC3G is a concentrated form of these anti-oxidative anthocyanin extracts.

C3G has also been studied to show that it helps maintain eye and heart health, help regulate cholesterol levels. Animal studies have demonstrated that this compound further supports healthy metabolism, regulation of blood sugar, and suggests that the anthocyanin pigments impact storage of fatty acids in our cells. By stimulating fat burning rather than storage, weight loss or maintenance can be affected.

Summary: ProC3G is an antioxidant rich compound that fights free radicals in the body caused by exercise and other stresses. It also supports metabolism, both by regulating blood sugar and stimulating the use of fatty acids as fuel to aid in weight loss or maintenance of lean body composition.

Citations: http://www.swansonvitamins.com/­health-library/­products/black-­rice-extract-­proc3g-antioxidant.html https://www.youtube.com/­watch?­t=78&v=-TNUq9c9dKg

Lila, M.A. (2004). Anthocyanins and human health: an in vitro investigative approach. Journal of Biomedical Biotechnology, 5, 306-313.

N(r)

Nicotinamide Riboside

Also known as Niagen, nicotinamide riboside is a precursor to NAD+, and is a member of the b-vitamin family. By increasing the NAD+ levels in the body, Niagen improves communication between the mitochondria and nucleus in the body. This improves energy production and cellular health. This ingredient has the potential to improve brain health, muscle endurance, support healthy cholesterol levels, improve metabolism, and have anti-aging effects through its ability to increase NAD+ in the body.

Both animal and human research has been done to establish the safety and effectiveness of Niagen. It is independently tested by the NSF and BSCG to ensure that it is pure and high quality. Combined with diet and exercise, Niagen has the potential to improve both mental and physical function.

Summary: Niagen is a newly discovered precursor to the NAD+ coenzyme that is needed to create ATP in our cells. By increasing the availability of NAD+, Niagen has anti-aging properties, improves cellular function and communication, and increases endurance, metabolism, mental clarity and overall health.

Citations: http://hpnsupplements.com/­product/niagen/
https://chromadex.com/­Ingredients/­NIAGEN.html

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